Governor Generals Under British Rule-Modern Indian History 

 Governor Generals and Important Events

By   @pratibha,   4 years ago

The office with the Title of the Governor General created by Regulating Act 1773. The office of 'Governor General' re-designated as the office with the title of Governor General of India by Government of India Act 1833 (also known as Charter Act 1833 or Saint Helena Act). According to the Government of India Act 1858 the Governor General representing the British crown in India and designated as 'Viceroy'.

Warren Hastings

Terms of office : 1773- 1785

Important Events:

  • He was the first Governor General of Bengal.
  • Treasury transferred from Murshidabad to Calcutta.
  • 1774- establishment of first high court in Calcutta.
  • 1780- First Indian news paper 'The Bengal Gazette' published (by James Augustus Hickey).
  • 1781- establishment of 'Madarsa' in Calcutta (by Warren Hastings).
  • 1782- Sanskrit College in Varanasi established (by Jonathan Duncan).
  • 1784- establishment of 'Asiatic Society of Bengal' (by William Jones).
  • 1775 to 1782- First Anglo- Maratha War, ended by treaty of Salbai.
  • 1780 to 1784- Second Anglo-Mysore War, ended by treaty of Manglore.
  • Establishment of Board of Revenue.
  • Charles Wilkins (First notable English Translator of Bhagavad Geeta) supported by Warren Hastings.

John Macpherson (Temporary Governor General )

Term of office: 1785- 1786

Lord Cornwallis (Charles Cornwallis-first Marquess Cornwallis)

Term of office: 1786- 1793

Important Events:

  • He worked to reduce nepotism and political favoritism.
  • Establishment of Circuit court and set up of appellate court in Calcutta.
  • Introduction of 'Cornwallis Code' (in 1793) based on power distribution ie- division between administration and commercial services.
  • All power related to district given to collector.
  • Increment of payment of police and restriction on their private business, establishment of police station.
  • Introduction of 'Permanent Settlement'.
  • Introduction of Civil Services.
  • Third Anglo- Mysore War.

John Shore

Term of office: 1793- 1798

Important Events:

  • Policy of non-intervention.
  • Charter Act 1793.

Lord Wellesley (Richard Wellesley,Earl of Mornington)

Term of office: 1798- 1805

Important Events:

  • Introduction of Subsidiary Alliance.
  • 1799 Fourth Anglo- Mysore War (death of Tipu Sultan).
  • 1803 to 1805- Second Anglo- Maratha War.
  • Establishment of Fort William College at Calcutta (for training of Civil Services)

George Barlow

Term of office: 1805- 1807

Important Events:

  • Sepoy Mutiny at Vellore.

Lord Minto

Term of office: 1807- 1813

Important Events:

  • 1809 Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Sing.
  • Charter Act of 1813.

Lord Hastings (Francis Rawdon Hastings, the Earl of Moria)

Term of office: 1813- 1823

Important Events:

  • End of non- intervention policy.
  • 1814 to 1816- Anglo- Nepal War (surrender of Amar Singh Thapa of Nepal).
  • 1816- Treaty of Sungauli with Gorkha.
  • Suppression of the power of Maratha and Pindari.
  • Restriction on press removed, rule formed to direct the press.
  • Approval of Mahalwari and Ryotwari system (Tenancy Act 1822).

Lord Amherst

Term of office: 1823- 1828

Important Events:

  • 1824- Sepoy Mutiny of Bairakpur.
  • 1824 to 1826- First Anglo- Burmese War.
  • 1826- Treaty of Yandabo with Burmese.

Lord William Bentinck

Term of office: 1828- 1835

Important Events:

  • Charter Act 1833, according to this Act Governor General of Bengal turned to Governor General of India.
  • William Bentinck the first Governor General of India.
  • 1829- Abolition of 'Sati Pratha' with the help of Raja Ram Mohan Rai.
  • 1830- Suppression of 'Thugs' with the help of Sir William Sleeman.
  • 1831- Mysore, 1834- Kurg and Madhyakacher are grabbed.
  • 1835 Establishment of Calcutta Medical college.
  • Suppression of practicing of killing of infant girl.
  • Recruitment of Indians for Public Services.
  • He made English language as a medium of Education.

Charles Metcalfe

Term of office: 1835- 1836

Important Events:

  • Liberty given to Indian Press.
  • Charles Metcalfe known as liberator of Indian Press.

Lord Auckland

Term of office: 1836- 1842

Important Events:

  • 1839 to 1842 - First Anglo- Afghan war was fought.
  • Maintenance of Grand Trunk Road
  • Bank of Bombay established(now State Bank of India).

Lord Ellenborough

Term of office: 1842- 1844

Important Events:

  • End of first Anglo Afghan war.
  • 1843- Annexation of Sindh by Britishers.
  • Abolition of slavery.
  • Ban of Madras established (now State Bank of India)

Lord Harding

Term of office: 1844- 1848

Important Events:

  • 1845 to 1846 -First Anglo-Sikh war(Sikh empire crushed by Britishers).
  • 1846-Treaty of Lahore.
  • Prohibition of Human sacrifice.

Lord Dalhousie

Term of office: 1848- 1856

Important Events:

  • Doctrine of Lapse, a policy of annexation introduced to expand the realm of British Rule. Under this policy merged states of India- Satara(1848), Jaipur and Sambalpur(849), Baghat(1850), Udaipur(1852), Jhansi(1853), Nagpur(1854).
  • 1848 to 1849- Second Anglo- Sikh war(Punjab merged into British Rule).
  • 1853- Second Anglo- Burma war (Lower Burma and Pigu merged into British Rule).
  • Annexation of Sikkim.
  • Wood Dispatch - related to improvement in education. Anglo- Vernacular school established in every district. At that time Government colleges also established in every city.
  • Three Universities established in -Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
  • Headquarter of Artillery shifted from Calcutta to Merat. headquarter of Military established in Shimla.
  • Railway was introduce. First train was between Bombay to Thane.
  • Postal Act passed.
  • Public Work Department (PWD) established.
  • Shimla declared as Capital during summer season.
  • First Telegraph Line service (operated by electricity) introduced between Calcutta and Agra.
  • First time competitive exam was conducted for Indian Civil Services.

Lord Canning

Term of office: 1856- 1862

Important Events:

  • Lord Canning was the last Governor General appointed by East India Company and also the first Viceroy of India under British Government.
  • Revolt of 1857 (a historical event). After that the control was transferred from company to British Government.
  • In 1856 - Indian High Court Act passed. Establishment of High Court in Bombay, Madras and Calcutta (one in each).
  • 1856- Widow's Remarriage Act passed
  • According to 1858 Act, the post of Mughal Samrat was ended.
  • Doctrine of Lapse Policy Ended.
  • 1861 Indian Council Act passed. Portfolio System was Applied.

Author : Pratibha Gaurav
Pratibha Gaurav


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